"Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic connective tissue disorder that is caused by defects in a protein called collagen. Common symptoms include skin hyperextensibility, abnormal wound healing, and joint hypermobility. More than 90% of people with classical EDS have mutations in COL5A1 or COL5A2, two genes which encode type V collagen. In rare cases, mutations in the gene encoding type I collagen, COL1A1gene, may be found. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treatment and management is focused on preventing serious complications and relieving associated symptoms."
Courtesy of NIH GARD
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Classic Type
Fransiska Malfait, Richard Wenstrup, Anne De Paepe - Gene Reviews, August 2011
"Diagnosis of EDS, classic type is established by family history and clinical examination. Quantitative and qualitative studies of type V collagen chains are usually not useful in confirming a diagnosis. At least 50% of individuals with classic EDS have an identifiable pathogenic variant in COL5A1 or COL5A2, the genes encoding type V collagen"
Spectrum of mucocutaneous, ocular and facial features and delineation of novel presentations in 62 classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patients.
Colombi M., Dordoni C. - Clinical Genetics, September 2017
Abstract: Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is characterized by marked cutaneous involvement, according to the Villefranche nosology and its 2017 revision. However, the diagnostic flow-chart that prompts molecular testing is still based on experts' opinion rather than systematic published data. Here we report on 62 molecularly characterized cEDS patients with focus on skin, mucosal, facial, and articular manifestations. The major and minor Villefranche criteria, additional 11 mucocutaneous signs and 15 facial dysmorphic traits were ascertained and feature rates compared by sex and age. In our cohort, we did not observe any mandatory clinical sign. Skin hyperextensibility plus atrophic scars was the most frequent combination, whereas generalized joint hypermobility according to the Beighton score decreased with age. Skin was more commonly hyperextensible on elbows, neck, and knees. The sites more frequently affected by abnormal atrophic scarring were knees, face (especially forehead), pretibial area, and elbows. Facial dysmorphism commonly affected midface/orbital areas with epicanthal folds and infraorbital creases more commonly observed in young patients. Our findings suggest that the combination of ≥1 eye dysmorphism and facial/forehead scars may support the diagnosis in children. Minor acquired traits, such as molluscoid pseudotumors, subcutaneous spheroids, and signs of premature skin aging are equally useful in adults.
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